The LMEs of the world's coastal waters annually contribute $12.6 trillion (US dollars) to the global economy (Costanza et al. 1997). The socioeconomic module emphasizes the practical application of scientific findings to managing LMEs, and the explicit integration of social and economic indicators and analyses with all other scientific assessments, to assure that prospective management measures are cost-effective. Economists and policy analysts work closely with ecologists and other scientists to identify and evaluate management options that are scientifically based and economically practical with regard to sustaining optimal socioeconomic benefits ofthe LME's goods and services.
The LME economic accounting paradigm requires that resource managers of the different sectors of stakeholder interests incorporate the cumulative assessments of changing ecosystem productivity, fish and fisheries, pollution and ecosystem health and their effects on socioeconomic conditions and governance jurisdictions, as both additive and integrative effects on ecosystem conditions. These latter components of the LME approach to marine resources management have recently been described as the human dimensions of LMEs (Hennessey & Sutinen 2005). A framework has been developed by the Department of Natural Resource Economics at the University of Rhode Island for monitoring and assessment of the human dimensions of LMEs and for incorporating socioeconomic considerations into an adaptive management approach for LMEs (Sutinen et al. 2000; Juda et al. 2006, Olsen et al. 2006). A method for indexing the relationships between marine industry and socioeconomic development has been developed by Hoagland and Jin (2008) of the Marine Policy Center of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.
Figure 1. Intensity of activity in large marine ecosystems: indexes showing the relationship between marine industry activity and socioeconomic development. The data of four representative LME cases are labeled on the graph. From Hoagland and Jin (2008).
Selected Socioeconomics Indicators Module publications
Costanza R, d'Arge R, Groots Rd, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Limburg K, Naeem S, O'Neill RV, Paruelo J and others. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260.
Duda, A.M.. 2005.Targeting development assistance to meet WSSD goals for large marine ecosystems and small island developing states. Ocean & Coastal Management 48:1014
Edwards S. 2005. Ownership of multi-attribute fishery resources in large marine ecosystems. In: Hennessey T, Sutinen J, editors. Sustaining large marine ecosystems: The human dimension. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science. p 137-154. 368p.
Grigalunas TA, Opaluch JJ, Diamantides J, Woo D-S. 2005. Eutrophication in the Northeast Shelf large marine ecosystem: Linking hydrodynamic and economic models for benefit estimation. In: Hennessey T, Sutinen J, eds, editors. Sustaining large marine ecosystems: The human dimension. Amsterdam: Elsevier p229-248. 368p.
Hoagland, P. and D. Jin. 2008. Accounting for marine economic activities in large marine ecosystems. Ocean & coastal Management 51(3): 246-258.
Hoagland P, Jin D, Thunberg E, Steinback S. 2005. Economic activity associated with the Northeast Shelf large marine ecosystem: Application of an input-output approach. In: Hennessey T, Sutinen J, eds, editors. Sustaining large marine ecosystems: The human dimension. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p 159-181. 371p.
Lee S-G, Sutinen JG. 1999. Large marine ecosystems, socioeconomics and governance. Korea Observer 30(1):9-58.
Olsen SB, Sutinen JG, Juda L, Hennessey TM, Grigalunas TA. 2006. A Handbook on Governance and Socioeconomics of Large Marine Ecosystems. Kingston, RI: Coastal Resources Center, University of Rhode Island. 94 p.
Sherman K, Duda AM. 2005. Applications of the Large Marine Ecosystem approach toward World Summit targets. In: Hennessey T, Sutinen J, editors. Sustaining Large Marine Ecosystems: The human dimension. Amsterdam: Elsevier. p 297-318. 368p.
Sutinen J, ed. 2000. A framework for monitoring and assessing socioeconomics and governance of large marine ecosystems. NOAA Technical Memorandum NMFS-NE-158:32p.
Sutinen, J.G. , P. Clay, C.L. Dyer, S.F. Edwards, J. Gates, T. Grigalunas, T. Hennesey, L. Juda, A.W. Kitts, P. Thunberg, H.R. Upton, and J.B. Walden. 2005. A framework for monitoring and assessing socioeconomics and governance of large marine ecosystems. 27-81 In, Hennessey, T.M. and J.G. Sutinen (Editors), Sustaining Large Marine Ecosystems: The human dimension. Elsevier.368p.